This is the third in the series of industrial censuses conducted in Ghana. The first was conducted in 1962 and the second in 1987. The Industrial section of the Statistical Service is responsible in the planning and implementation of this study
There was a growing concern about the slow growth of Ghana's industrial sector, particularly with respect to the manufacturing sub-sector which has stagnated in comparison with countries like Cote d'Ivoire and Malaysia where manufacturing levels were lower than Ghana 30 years ago. The state of Ghana's industry has been recognized by the Government of Ghana and a number of initiatives have been taken over the years to help accelerate industrial growth. Despite laudable interventions, such as the New Industrial Reform, the Accelerated Growth Programme and the Ghana Poverty Reduction Strategy, manufacturing value added in Ghana grew at a low rate between 1990 and 2001. The small size of the Ghanaian market and the failure of manufacturers to break into export markets are frequently cited among the causes of the present predicament of the manufacturing sub-sector. The Mining sub sector has overcome some of these obstacles with increases in output over the years, which is mostly exported. Production of Electricity and Water on the other hand has not grown enough to support higher rates of growth of industry.
The Ghana Statistical Service in collaboration with Ministry of Trade and Industry and Presidential Special Initiative and supported by UNIDO conducted the 2003 National Industrial Census. The objectives of the census was to obtain benchmark data on the structure of industry, establish an industrial database and regularly update the register, obtain data on production and employment for government and business analysis and decision making. Other objectives was to measure the contribution of each industry and region to Ghana's employment and production. In addition to the above mentioned objectives, the obtained data should be internationally comparable on the structure and activity of each industrial sub sector.
There were two phases of the National Industrial Census with phase I listing all industrial establishment in the country that are primarily engaged in mining and quarrying, manufacturing, construction and the production of electricity and water. Household industries were excluded unless there is a clear indication of the industry by way of a sign board. The phase II covered all establishments primarily engaged in mining and quarrying, construction, the production of electricity and water, all manufacturing establishment engaging 10 or more persons and a representative sample of manufacturing establishements engaging less than 10 persons.
Kind of Data
Census/enumeration data [cen]
Unit of Analysis
V1.2 Edited data for internal use only
data was dumped and outliers compared with the corresponding questionnaire and data corrected
The scope of the National Industrial Census include all establishments in the following sectors: mining and quarrying, electricity & water production and construction. With regard to the manufacturing sub sector, all establishments engaging 10 persons or more were included whereas a sample was taken from establishments engaging less than 10 persons. The areas of interest within these sectors are the Identification and classification of the establishments. employment and earnings, stocks, fixed assets, input costs, sales and other receipts of the establishments.
Regional District, Metropolitan, Municipal
The Census included all establishments in the following sectors: mining and quarrying, electricity & water production and construction. With regard to the manufacturing sub sector, all establishments engaging 10 persons or more were included whereas a sample was taken from establishments engaging less than 10 persons.
Producers and sponsors
Ghana Statistical Service
Ministry of Trade and Industry
Assisted in the preparatory activities
Danish Development Agency
United Nations Industrial Development Organisation
A one-stage sample design was used for the survey with the primary sampling units (PSU) being the individual establishment. The sampling frame of establishments had two levels of stratification in addition to implicit stratification from ordering the establishments within each stratum. The first level of stratification was by the 4-digit ISIC activities, which represented the smallest domains of analysis. Within each of these individual activities, the establishments were further stratified by the number of persons engaged, which is also correlated with industrial production, revenue, expenditures and other aggregates to be measured in the survey.
Deviations from the Sample Design
All of the establishments in the Construction, Electricity and Water, Mining and Quarrying sub-sectors were included in the survey regardless of size. Given that reliable estimates are required for each 4-digit ISIC group, activities with few establishments were also identified as certainty strata.
Establishments are classified into mining and quarrying, manufacturing, electricity and production and construction sectors. Under manufacturing we considered establishments which engaged less than 10 persons and that which engaged 10 or more persons.
The frame for establishments engaging 1 - 9 persons is 22,404
The frame for establishments engaging 10+ persons is 4,230
The number of establishments sampled:
1 - 9 =1,263
Number of establishment completed:
1 - 9 = 895
10+ = 2,918
Number of establishment out of scope + Association
1 - 9 = 53
10+ = 765
Number of establishment not completed
1 - 9 = 304
10+ = 484
Number of establishment closed down
1 - 9 = 43
10+ = 81
Response rate for :
1 - 9 = 0.77
10+ = 0.86
Response rate is equal to the ratio of number of completed to the adjusted number of not completed establishment
Adjusted number of establishments excludes out of scopes and association, groups and cooperative, closed down and not located establishments
* the difference in the sample and the frame for 10+ persons engaged establishment was due to the migration of 1-9 persons engaged establishment into the 10+ category
Sample weight were calculated for the manufacturing and mining data files. The sample weight variable is called weights. The sample weight was computed as the inverse of the probability of selection. The sample weight were adjusted to take into account the non-interview (non response) within each stratum including the certainty strata
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
There were teams formed with varying number of team members with the minimum being 4 members and the maximum being 6 members. Each team had a supervisor.
The role of the supervisor is to accompany enumerators to check on their boundaries and localities in their respective zones. In addition to ensure that all enumerators under his care do enumerate all establishments in his supervisory area. Help enumerators when they are in difficulty and keep in touch with the enumerators under his care.
The teams were constituted into area zone with a zonal officer. A zone was made up of four or five teams.
Data Collection Notes
There was a one week residential training for enumerators and supervisors for the Phase I which collected basic information on all establishments engaged in Mining and Quarrying, Manufacturing, Construction and the production and distribution of Electricity and Water. Information was also collected on location, industrial activity among others. The data collection period was about two months. This served as a frame for the phase II.
For phaseII both supervisors and enumerators underwent a two-week residential training course. Training was conducted by senior staff of the Industrial Census Secretariat, with the assistance of Regional Statisticians. It included lectures, demonstrations, practical work and assessments. Assessments included written examination and observation of practical work. Out of the 360 trainees, 257 qualified and were accepted for field work.
Ghana Statistical Service
There were five types of questionnaires used in the 2003 National industrial census. The phase I had one scannable questionnaire which collected information on all establishments engaged in mining and quarrying, manufacturing, construction and the production of electricity and water. The location of these establishments were also taken as well as the persons engaged.
During the phase II there were four types of questionnaire. The national industrial census 2003 (manufacturing) labeled 3A which was used for establishments engaging 10+ persons.
The national industrial census 2003 (manufacturing) labeled 3B which was used for establishments engaging less than 10 persons.
The national industrial census 2003 (mining and quarrying) labeled 2 which was used for establishments engaged in mining and quarrying irrespective of number of persons engaged.
The national industrial census 2003 (electricity and water) labeled 4 which was used for establishments engaged in the production of electricity and water irrespective of number of persons engaged.
The national industrial census 2003 (construction) labeled 5 which was used for establishments engaged in construction irrespective of number of persons engaged.
All questionnaires were edited for completeness, scope and internal consistency in the office before sending them for data capture. Questionnaires that did not meet the test were set aside for determination. Each questionnaire goes through the hands of a chain of editors i.e. lead editor then by the team leader in charge. All editors are confined to a particular place. This promotes consultations.
During data capture, there was double entry i.e. main and verification with comparison and necessary corrections effected. Structural checks and completeness is also done during data capture.
Automated data capture was used for the phase1 using the Teleform software. Three scanners with each having a scanning assistant. The data was posted into MS-Access which was then exported into SPSS. Data editing and cleaning was done in SPSS. This resulted in the sampling frame for the phase II
Data capture was done at a central place in the head office. 10 data entry officers using 10 desktop computers were deployed to do this work with two supervisors and two questionnaire admnistrators. The software used in the data capture was the Integrated Microcomputer Processing System (IMPS 4.0)
After data capture and secondary editing, the ascii data was exported into SPSS ver11.5 where sample weights were applied to the sampled establishments (manufacturing engaging 1-9 persons) then the production of the analysis tables
Estimates of Sampling Error
Estimates from a sample survey are affected by two types of errors: 1) non-sampling errors and 2) sampling errors. Non-sampling errors are the results of mistakes made in the implementation of data collection and data processing. Numerous efforts were made to minimize this type of error, however, non-sampling errors are impossible to avoid and difficult to evaluate statistically. Sample errors was calculated for survey estimates of total number of persons engaged by the 4-digit ISIC to ensure that all ISIC groups had a coefficient of variation (CV) lower than 10 percent
Details of the sampling errors are presented in appendix-3.
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