The 2009 Crime Victimization Survey (CVS) was the first to be conducted. It was a pilot study designed to facilitate a broader understanding of the crime problem as well as a better assessment of its burden on citizens in four Metropolitan Areas in Ghana. The four areas were Accra, Kumasi, Sekondi-Takoradi and Tamale Metropolitan Assemblies. The CVS is a household survey programme conducted by GSS, with funding from United Nations Office on Drug and Crime (UNODC).
The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) initiative Data for Africa has the overall objective to improve the knowledge of drugs and crime problems in Africa, by strengthening the capacity of African countries to collect and analyse data and trends in drugs, crime and victimization.
While in the past only police and criminal justice data were used to measure crime, it is widely accepted that such information alone is not sufficient and should be complemented with victimization survey results. Thus, the survey was to assist Ghana in filling data gaps for monitoring the crime situation in the surveyed areas.
For the first time, the survey enabled Ghana to generate household-based crime indicators and set baselines for many other statistics and indicators.
The 2009 Crime Victimization Survey in Ghana was a household survey carried out in four Metropolitan Areas - Sekondi-Takoradi, Accra, Kumasi and Tamale Metropolitan Areas. It was a pilot study designed to facilitate a broader understanding of crime and its burden on the citizenry. While in the past only police and criminal justice data were used to measure crime, it is now widely accepted that such information alone is not sufficient and should be complemented with victimization survey results.
During the survey, interviews were conducted among a representative sample of the population in the four areas. People were asked whether or not they have been victims of crime in the past five years. Different crime areas were considered in the survey.
The main objective of the study is to collect information on citizens' first hand experiences in crime and criminal justice. The specific objectives are:
Promoting community and victim centered crime prevention strategies
Providing accurate and reliable information as the basis for the development of national policies as well as internationally
comparable crime and criminal justice data databases
Improve police-community relations by:
(a) Revealing the propensity to report crimes
(b) Exploring the level of satisfaction with the patrolling activities upon report
(c) Increasing the use of individual and household crime prevention measures
Building the capacity of Ghana Statistical Service in conducting crime victimization survey.
The population in individual households that dwell in living quarters in each of the four Metropolitan Assemblies constituted the sampling frame. The sample design was a clustered, multi-stage probability sample. The updated list of enumeration areas (EAs) that were used for the 2000 Population and Housing Census constitute the sampling frame for the four Metropolitan Assemblies.
Selection of the sample was in two stages. At the first stage of sampling, 120 EAs (PSUs) were selected with Probability Proportional to Size (PPS). That is determination of the sample size uses proportional allocation based on each Metropolitan Assembly's share of the total population of the four metropolitan areas. At the second stage, 13 households were selected systematically with a random start and interval separately for each EA to produce a total of 1,560 households for the four metropolitan areas.
The questionnaire used in the survey to collect information on household members, included the following crimes:
Motor vehicle theft (car, motor cycle and bicycle)
Car hijacking/attempted car hijacking
Burglary/attempted burglary (break and enter)
The questions related to crimes that either the respondent or any member of his/her household has experienced over the past five years (i.e. since January 1, 2004).
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
No changes have been made to the version. This is the first time that the survey is been documented
The survey collected information about households and the individual members of the household in Sekondi-Takoradi, Accra, Kumasi and Tamale Metropolitan Assemblies. These information include background information and 13 crime areas that either the respondent or any member of the household has experienced over the past five years (i.e. since January 1, 2004).
Background information of individuals included sex, age, marital status, religious affiliation, employment status and highest educational attainment.
The 13 crime areas included the following:
Motor cycle theft
Car hijacking and Attempted car hijacking
Theft from cars
Burglary and Attempted burglary (break and enter)
The survey covered all usual household members in the coverage area (both males and females), aged 16 years and older.
Producers and sponsors
Ghana Statistical Service
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime
Financial and technical assistance
The 2009 Crime Victimization Survey was held in four Metropolitan Assemblies in Ghana: Sekondi-Takoradi, Accra, Kumasi and Tamale Metropolitan. The population in individual households that dwell in living quarters in each of the four Metropolitan Assemblies constituted the sampling frame. The institutional population (such as persons in hospitals, prisons, hotels and similar establishments, persons living on the streets or the homeless) were excluded from the frame.
The sample design was a clustered, multi-stage probability sample. The updated list of enumeration areas (EAs) that were used for the 2000 Population and Housing Census constitute the sampling frame for the four Metropolitan Assemblies for the survey. The EAs are defined as Primary Sampling Units (PSUs), while households within the selected EAs constitute the Secondary Sampling Units (SSUs).
Selection of the sample was in two stages. At the first stage of sampling, 120 EAs (PSUs) were selected with Probability Proportional to Size (PPS). That is determination of the sample size uses proportional allocation based on each Metropolitan Assembly's share of the total population of the four metropolitan areas. The selection of EAs is accomplished by carrying out sampling operations independently within each metropolitan area. At the second stage, 13 households were selected systematically with a random start and interval separately for each EA to produce a total of 1,560 households for the four metropolitan areas.
The population of interest was all household members aged 16 years and older. Among these household members, the individual who was next to celebrate his/her birthday was selected for the interview.
Deviations from the Sample Design
No deviation of the original sample design was made
No weighting was computed
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
The data were collected by six teams. Each team was manned by one supervisor. Among others, the supervisor coordinated community entries, coordinate field data collection activities, including management of the field teams, and supplies and equipment. Additionally, the field supervisor assigned the work to the interviewers, reviewed work by interviewers, spot checked work and maintained field control documents. He/she also served as the liaison officer between the fieldstaff and the secretariat at the head office.
Senior Officers from the project secretariat and Management of GSS as well as the Data Processing consultant, also embarked on a number of supervisory field visits, aimed at ensuring that field procedures were followed.
Data Collection Notes
A total of 31 personnel participated in the main fieldwork training, conducted from 1st to 7th November, 2009. The Consultant for Data processing also participated in the main training to get a better understanding of the questionnaire and the survey techniques.
At the end of the training, 6 supervisors and 25 interviewers were selected based on their performance in class, field practices, assessment tests and fluency in the Ghanaian languages.
The data were collected by six teams; each was comprised of one supervisor, three interviewers and one driver.
Ghana Statistical Service
The questionnaire was developed in English by adapting the International Crime Victimization Survey (ICVS) questionnaire.
Prior to the main survey, the questionnaire was pretested.
Data editing occurred at three levels:
1. Data were validated in the field. Field editing was done by interviewers and supervisors of all questionnaires in the clusters that data were collected. Interviewers and supervisors revisited households to collect information which was either left out, uncompleted or not clear.
2. A team was engaged to do office editing. The purpose of office editing was to ensure that field data collection had conformed to the laid down principles and procedures. Necessary corrections were made if errors were found.
3. Data cleaning and imputation. This stage offered the data processing officers to run further checks that ensured consistency.
Capturing of the questionnaires was automated. The questionnaires were converted into scannable format using Teleform automated data capture software. The questionnaires were then printed after several tests had been conducted to make sure that the database had captured all the variables in the questionnaire. This helped to speed up the data capture and reduce data entry errors during processing of the data.
Before scanning using Teleform, manual edits were performed on the questionnaires received from the field to check for completeness and accuracy of the household questionnaire. After the scanning exercise, structural edits were done followed by consistency checks to further reduce errors.
Data were captured, cleaned and edited in MS Access format and transferred to SPSS. Further cleaning and imputations were done during analysis where the information was found to be contradictory or incomplete.
Data processing commenced on the 15th December, 2009 and ended on 4th January, 2010.
Using SPSS software, basic data consistency checks were made and the necessary gaps were rectified.
Ghana Statistical Service (GSS) requires all users to keep information and microdata strictly confidential. In this regard, before being granted access to microdatasets, all users have to formally agree to observe the following:
1. Not to make copies of any files or portions of files to which access has been granted except with the authorization by GSS
2. Not to willfully identify any individual or household or establishment in the microdataset
3. To hold in strictest confidence, the identity of any individual or household or establishment that may be inadvertently revealed in any documents or discussion, or analysis. Such unintended identification revealed should be immediately brought to the attention of GSS.
4. Microdata obtained from GSS are protected by copyright law and therefore not for re-distribution or sale
5. Prospective clients or data users may be required to submit and sign an affidavit of confidentiality of microdata they access
The Ghana Statistical Service as a public institution has the obligation to promote data dissemination to facilitate national development. Making mcrodata available will enable students and the academia to conduct research works, assist investors to take business decision, help the individual to evaluate and take appropriate decisions. It will also assist the government to formulate appropriate policies and programmes to facilitate national development. GSS' policy framework provides access to data through:
1. Public use files. These categories of data sets are accessible by all without any payment. They are available on-line to all interested users, for research and statistical purposes only.
2. Licensed datasets. These categories of data sets are accessible under certain conditions. Thus, prospective clients/data users may access any data based on certain conditions set by the GSS
3. Datasets only accessible on location. We consider this category as a data enclave where some data sets are only accessible at GSS offices and prospective data users and researches have to physically be available at GSS offices for further discussions before data are released. Thus, data enclave would not be linked to the outside world through our web site or other medium.
The following terms and conditions apply:
Before being granted access to the dataset, all users have to formally agree:
1. To make no copies of any files or portions of files for which access has been granted, except those authorized by GSS.
2. Not to use any technique in an attempt to identify any person, establishment, or sampling unit.
3. To hold in strictest confidence, the identification of any establishment or individual that may be inadvertently revealed in any documents or discussion, or analysis. Such inadvertent identification revealed in her/his analysis will be immediately brought to the attention of the GSS.
4. The data and other materials will not be redistributed or sold to other individuals, institutions, or organizations without the written agreement of GSS.
5. The data will be used for statistical and scientific research purposes only.
6. The data will be used solely for reporting of aggregated information, and not for investigation of specific individuals or organizations.
7. No attempt will be made to identify respondents, and no use will be made of the identity of any person or establishment discovered inadvertently. Any such discovery would immediately be reported to the GSS.
8. No attempt will be made to produce links among datasets provided by the GSS with other datasets that could identify individuals or organizations.
9. Any books, articles, conference papers, theses, dissertations, reports, or other publications that employ data obtained from the GSS would cite the source of data in accordance with the citation statement provided with the dataset
10. An electronic copy of all reports and publications based on the requested data will be sent to the GSS.