The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) 2011 is the fourth round in the series in Ghana and is a household survey programme developed by UNICEF in the mid 90's to assist countries in filling data gaps for monitoring the situation of children and women. The MICS data contain statistically sound, internationally comparable estimates of important social-demographic indicators to monitor the situation of children and women in Ghana. The MICS was originally developed in response to the World Summit for Children (WSC) held in 1990 to measure progress towards an internationally agreed set of mid-decade goals. In this sense, MICS was basically developed to fill existing data gaps and to inform and complement existing data collection methods and instruments (e.g. administrative records, census, vital events registration, etc.). The survey has generated a set of indicators to monitor most of the 27 goals of the World Summit for Children (WSC), plus an additional set of indicators to monitor child rights and newly emerging areas of concern, including for example, Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI), malaria, child discipline and knowledge of HIV/AIDS. The MICS is focused on providing a monitoring tool for the World Fit for Children, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), as well as other major international commitments, such as the UNGASS on HIV/AIDS and the Abuja targets for malaria. About 20 of the 48 MDG indicators could be derived from this survey; MICS offering one of the largest single source of data for MDG monitoring. For the fourth time, the survey would enable Ghana to monitor the trends in many indicators and set baselines for other statistics and indicators.
The Ghana Statistical Service, in collaboration with the National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) and the Navrongo Health Research Centre of the Ghana Health Service, conducted the fourth round of the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS 2011), with funding and technical support from UNICEF, USAID, US President’s Malaria Initiative (PMI) and ICF Macro in Calverton, Maryland, USA. The main objective of the survey was to provide up-to-date information for assessing the health situation of the population, particularly women and children in Ghana.
MICS 2011 is a nationally representative household sample survey of 12,150 households in 810 enumeration areas (EAs). The survey is expected to provide estimates of all key health indicators at the national and regional levels, as well as for urban and rural areas. Moreover, four of the 10 regions that are of particular importance for UNICEF’s programmes will be disproportionally oversampled so as to provide some data at the district level. The four oversampled regions are Central, Northern, Upper East, and Upper West.
MICS 2011 uses four main questionnaires: a Household Questionnaire, a Woman’s Questionnaire for women age 15-49, a Man’s Questionnaire for men age 15-59, and a Child’s Questionnaire for children under five year (with questions posed to the child’s primary caretaker). Major topics covered in these questionnaires include household characteristics, characteristics of respondents, child mortality, child nutritional status, breastfeeding, Vitamin A supplementation, birth registration, birth weight, immunization, salt iodization, oral rehydration treatment, care seeking and antibiotic treatment of pneumonia, , the proportion of households with insecticide treated nets (ITNs), the proportion of the population that sleep under ITNs, solid fuel use, water and sanitation, contraception, antenatal care, delivery and postnatal care, child ,school attendance, literacy, child discipline, female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C), domestic violence (DV), sexual behaviour, HIV/AIDS and the prevalence of malaria parasites and anaemia among children aged 6-59 months. Consequently, blood samples of all children age 6-59 months will be collected for the malaria and anaemia tests. Although malaria indicators (e.g., bednet ownership and use, coverage of intermittent preventive treatment and treatment of childhood fever) will be collected in all households, the malaria and anaemia testing components will be implemented in all households in six regions, but confined to every second household in the four over-sampled regions.
It is hoped that the findings from MICS 2011 would provide up-to-date information on progress made towards targets set by the Ghana Poverty Reduction Strategy (GPRS II), the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and other national and international programmes aimed at promoting the welfare of women and children. The results are also expected to help policy planners improve on access and quality of health-related services in the country.
The MICS 2011 data collection was carried out over a period of three months (September 15 -December 14, 2011) by 20 field teams spread across the country. In order to help achieve the objectives of the survey, enumeration areas (EAs) were selected in some towns and communities within the various districts. In each of these EAs, 15 households were visited and interviewed by a field team comprising of a Supervisor (team leader), 1 Field Editor, 3 Interviewers, 1 Biomarker Technician, and a driver.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
Households and Individuals
Version 1.1 Edited
MICS 2011 had a module for Anaemia and Malaria Testing for Children Under Five. Children were tested for anaemia and malaria after seeking the consent of the parents. The malaria esting was done using the malaria rapid test. Those who tested positive for malaria were given malaria treatment while those whose results showed that they had severe anaemia or severe malaria were advised to seek treatment from a health facility.
There was a module on National Health Insurance to find out if households members had subscribed to the scheme and if not, why they were not holding a health insurance card to enable them access health facilities when ill.
The survey collected a wide range of information about households and the individual members of the household. These information include:
1. Household information: Individual members, head of household, sex, age, marital status, relation to head of household, education, water and sanitation, working children, child discipline,
disability and salt iodization
2. Children under 5 years: breastfeeding, care of illness, malaria, immunization, anthropometry, test for anaemia and malaria
3. Women 15-49 years: infant/child mortality, tetanus toxoid, maternal and newborn health, marriage/union, contraception, female genital mutilation, attitude towards domestic violence, sexual
behavior, and HIV/AIDS
4. Men 15-49 years: reproduction, marriage, sexual behavior, HIV/AIDS, sexually transmitted infections and attitudes toward domestic violence
DEMOGRAPHY AND POPULATION 
SOCIETY AND CULTURE 
morbidity and mortality [14.4]
LABOUR AND EMPLOYMENT 
Maternal and newborn health
Female genital mutilation
Sexually Transmitted Infections
Water and Sanitation
Care of illness
The survey covered 810 enumeration areas and 12,150 households across the country. In terms of eligibility, it covered the following households members:
1. All women age 15-49 years
2. All men age 15-49 years
3. All children under 5 years
4. All household members
Producers and sponsors
Ghana Statistical Service
Ministry of Health
Govermnent of Ghana
United Nations Children's Fund
United States Agency for International Development
US) President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief
The sample for the MICS 2006 was designed to provide estimates on a large number of indicators on the health status of women, men, and children at the national level, for urban and rural areas, as well as for the 10 administrative regions in the country.
The list of enumeration areas (EAs) from the 2010 Ghana Population and Housing Census (PHC) served as a frame for the MICS sample. The frame was first stratified into the 10 administrative regions in the country, then into urban and rural EAs.
Deviations from the Sample Design
No deviation from the original sample design was made
Of the 12,150 households selected for the sample, 11,970 were contacted for interviews. Of these, 11,92 5were interviewed, giving a response rate of about 100 percent. In the households interviewed, 10,963
women aged 15–49 years were identi?ed. Of these, 10,627 were duly interviewed, producing a response rate of 97 per cent. Concerning children under the age of 5 years, 7,626 were identi?ed, for whom responses
were obtained from their mother or caregiver in 7,550 complete interviews, giving a response rate of 99 percent. For the male survey, 3,511 men aged 15-59 years were identi?ed, and 3,321 successfully interviewed,
yielding a response rate of 95 percent.
Sample weights were appended to all data sets and analyses were performed by weighting each household, woman, man or under-5 with these sample weights.
Household sample weight is hhweight
Women's sample weight is wmweight
Children's sample weight is chweight
Men's sample weight is mnweight
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Field supervisors, played a vital role in the survey field operations. They mediated between the Field Interviewers who collected the required information and the Survey Secretariat where the MICS 2011 was managed from.
Supervisors worked with three (3) Field Interviewers, One (1) Field Editor and One (1) Health Technician (Malaria Biomarker).
Supervisors were to oversee the work of interviewers and assist them with the identification of selected households and carry out any protocols needed to solicit the cooperation of respondents. Interviewers were to administer the questionnaires (Household, Women, Children under five and Men) to selected households assigned to them.
Supervisors were also to assist interviewers with the estimation of the ages of respondents who could not readily recall their ages but who could recall some historical events to guide the estimation of their ages.
To ensure good quality data from the field, the editor was to review all completed questionnaires to ensure cosnsitency and completeness.
There were field monitoring/supervisory visits by personnel from the survey secretariat to verify the work of the teams in the field. This was also to ensure the collection of quality data.
Data Collection Notes
Twenty (20) field teams were formed for the data collection. Each team was made up of a supervisor, an editor, three interviewers, a health personnel (malaria biomarker) and a driver. There were a series of field monitoring visits during which completed questionnaires were verified to ensure consistency and completeness.
Ghana Statistical Service
Office of the president
Four main questionnaires were used for the MICS 2011 data collection:
1. Household information: Individual members, head of household, sex, age, marital
status, relation to head of household, education, water and sanitation, working
children, child discipline, disability and salt iodization
2. Children under 5 years: breastfeeding, care of illness, malaria, immunization, anthropometry, anaemia and malaria testing
3. Women 15-49 years: infant/child mortality, tetanus toxoid, maternal and newborn health, marriage/union, contraception, female genital mutilation, attitude towards domestic violence, sexual behavior, and HIV/AIDS
4. Men 15-49 years: reproduction, marriage, sexual behavior, HIV/AIDS, sexually transmitted infections and attitudes toward domestic violence
Data editing is a very important measure to enhance data quality. In the MICS survey, data editing occured at three levels:
1. Field editing by editors and supervisors - In all the clusters that data were collected, ediors and supervisors revisited households and collected information which was either left out, uncompleted or responses which were not clear. Thus, data were validated in the field
2. Office editing-The purpose of office editing which was carried out under the MICS survey was to ensure that field data collection had conformed to the laid-down principles and procedures. Necessary codes, names, values were provided
3. Data cleaning and imputation - This stage offered the data processing personnel the opportunity to run further checks that ensured consistency. In a situation where inconsistencies were huge, field monitors were sent back to the field for verification of data that had been collected and thereafter, the necessary corrections made
4. Individual data files were also checked for completeness and consistency.
Data from the questionnaires were captured using the CSPro software. The data were entered on 10 computers by 10 data entry operators and two data entry supervisors. In order to ensure quality control, all questionnaires were double entered and 4 secondary editors complemented the efforts of entry supervisors to perform internal consistency checks. Procedures and standard programmes developed under the global MICS Project and adapted to the Ghana questionnaire were used throughout the processing. Data processing began shortly after the commencement of fieldwork on 14th August, 2011 and lasted for three months.
Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software program and the model syntax and tabulation plans developed by UNICEF.
The data capture at GSS takes the following forms:
1. Manual data entry
Data editing of the captured data usually consisted of:
1. Verification or double entry
2. Consistency checks
3. Structure edits
4. Quality Control
Using SPSS software, basic data consistency checks were made and the necessary gaps were filled.
Ghana Statistical Service (GSS) requires all users to keep information and microdata strictly confidential. In this regard, before being granted access to microdatasets, all users have to formally agree to observe the following:
1. Not to make copies of any files or portions of files to which access has been granted vailable to other individuals/organizations except with the authorization of GSS
2. Not to willfully identify any individual or household or establishment in the microdataset
3. To hold in strictest confidence, the identity of any individual or household or establishment that may be inadvertently revealed in any documents or discussion, or analysis. Such unintended identification revealed should be immediately brought to the attention of GSS.
4. Microdata obtained from GSS are protected by copyright law and therefore not for re-distribution or sale
5. Prospective clients or data users may be required to submit and sign an affidavit of confidentiality of microdata they access
The Ghana Statistical Service as a public institution has the obligation to promote data dissemination to facilitate national development. Making mcrodata available will enable students and the academia to conduct research works, assist investors to take business decisions, help the individual to evaluate and take appropriate decisions. It will also assist the government to formulate appropriate policies and programmes to facilitate national development. GSS' policy framework provides access to data through:
1. Public use files. These categories of data sets are accessible by all without any payment. They are available on-line to all interested users, for research and statistical purposes only.
2. Licensed datasets. These categories of data sets are accessible under certain conditions. Thus, prospective clients/data users may access any data based on certain conditions set by the GSS
3. Datasets only accessible on location. We consider this category as a data enclave where some data sets are only accessible at GSS offices and prospective data users and researches have to physically go to the GSS offices for further discussions before data are released. Thus, data enclave would not be linked to the outside world through our web site or other medium.
The following terms and conditions apply:
Before being granted access to the dataset, all users have to formally agree:
1. To make no copies of any files or portions of files for which access has been granted, except those authorized by GSS.
2. Not to use any technique in an attempt to identify any person, establishment, or sampling unit.
3. To hold in strictest confidence, the identification of any establishment or individual that may be inadvertently revealed in any documents or discussion, or analysis. Such inadvertent identification revealed in her/his analysis will be immediately brought to the attention of the GSS.
4. The data and other materials will not be redistributed or sold to other individuals, institutions, or organizations without the written agreement of GSS.
5. The data will be used for statistical and scientific research purposes only.
6. The data will be used solely for reporting of aggregated information, and not for investigation of specific individuals or organizations.
7. No attempt will be made to identify respondents, and no use will be made of the identity of any person or establishment discovered inadvertently. Any such discovery would immediately be reported to the GSS.
8. No attempt will be made to produce links among datasets provided by the GSS with other datasets that could identify individuals or organizations.
9. Any books, articles, conference papers, theses, dissertations, reports, or other publications that employ data obtained from the GSS would cite the source of data in accordance with the citation statement provided with the dataset
10. An electronic copy of all reports and publications based on the requested data will be sent to the GSS.
Ghana Statistical Service , MICS 2011, version 1.1